Wednesday, November 23, 2005

Plastics of the Future !

Year 2005: You go to your neighbourhood grocery store, ask for bread you get it in a polethelene bag. Source of polyethlene: Petroleum. Price: $60/barrel.
You throw the bag away, it stays there in the soil for the next thousand years.

Year 2015: You go to your neighbourhood Wal-Mart in Pune( most likely to happen!!!), buy some bread. You get it wrapped in Bio-polymer!!! Source of polymer: could be anything from corn waste or sugarcane waste to waste water from ag-processing industries!!! Price of crude oil: Considering that it was abt $40 till a few years back you can take a guess.
You throw the bag away in the soil, it decomposes!

My research at UND, is in modifying properties of poly lactic acid so that it can be used for food contacting operations, or soda pop bottles. So what is poly lactic acid? Poly lactic acid is a polymer obtained by polymerization of lactc acid. Lactic acid can be obtained from any bio mass, like corn.

The prospects of polylacticacid have got a lot of people excited throughout the world.
Over the last few decades, the interest in biodegradable and bioresorbable polymers has increased tremendously. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency 11.3 % of nearly 4.5 pounds/person/day of solid waste produced in the US is plastic waste. This translates in to a half pound of plastic waste generated per American per day.

Disposing of petroleum based polymers poses major environmental hazards due to formation of variety of hydrocarbons, and green house gases like CO2. As a result, most non-biodegradable plastics, like polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene end up in landfills and not much is recycled. Alsothese chemicals can slowly leach out, polluting the ground water and causing many health concerns.

Biodegradable polymers, however, can be decomposed in compost heaps, instead of being dumped in landfills. Not only that it is made from 100% renewable resources (made by photosynthesis in plants using sunlight). Also due to increasing costs of crude oil and decresing costs of manufacturing these polymers, they are likely to be much cheaper.

Cargill Dow has already set up a plant manufacturing 1400 tons/year PLA polymer at Blair Nebraska, made from corn growing in adjacent fields. This PLA is used to make food and non food packaging material, disposable cold drink cups, casing for laptops, walkmans, batteries, and also fibres for pillows, mattresses, casual and sports apparel, furnishings and much more.
The National Chemical Laboratories(NCL) in Pune has also developed the technology indigineously, and will be shortly applying for a US Patent.

Hence this is one material truly for the future.

Sunday, November 20, 2005

New Theory On Gravity

Well, I thought for a change I should post something lighthearted on the blog.

I came across a fake news web site called 'The Onion' , which had a article titled "Evangelical Scientists Refute Gravity With New 'Intelligent Falling' Theory " , which reminded me of Pheobe in Friends, when she tells Ross, that of late she feels that she is being pushed downwards rather than being pulled downwards due to garvity!!!! It is hilarious.

Here is the Link check it out!

Wednesday, November 09, 2005

Finding you'r passion.

This is the text of the Commencement address by Steve Jobs, CEO of Apple Computer and of Pixar Animation Studios, delivered on June 12, 2005 at Stanford's graduation. I read it on a blog, and found it simply great.
It is very important that you follow your passion in life, to be successfull.

I am honored to be with you today at your commencement from one of the finest universities in the world. I never graduated from college. Truth be told, this is the closest I've ever gotten to a college graduation. Today I want to tell you three stories from my life. That's it. No big deal. Just three stories.

The first story is about connecting the dots.
I dropped out of Reed College after the first 6 months, but then stayed around as a drop-in for another 18 months or so before I really quit. So why did I drop out?
It started before I was born. My biological mother was a young, unwed college graduate student, and she decided to put me up for adoption. She felt very strongly that I should be adopted by college graduates, so everything was all set for me to be adopted at birth by a lawyer and his wife. Except that when I popped out they decided at the last minute that they really wanted a girl. So my parents, who were on a waiting list, got a call in the middle of the night asking: "We have an unexpected baby boy; do you want him?" They said: "Of course." My biological mother later found out that my mother had never graduated from college and that my father had never graduated from high school. She refused to sign the final adoption papers. She only relented a few months later when my parents promised that I would someday go to college.
And 17 years later I did go to college. But I naively chose a college that was almost as expensive as Stanford, and all of my working-class parents' savings were being spent on my college tuition. After six months, I couldn't see the value in it. I had no idea what I wanted to do with my life and no idea how college was going to help me figure it out. And here I was spending all of the money my parents had saved their entire life. So I decided to drop out and trust that it would all work out OK. It was pretty scary at the time, but looking back it was one of the best decisions I ever made. The minute I dropped out I could stop taking the required classes that didn't interest me, and begin dropping in on the ones that looked interesting.
It wasn't all romantic. I didn't have a dorm room, so I slept on the floor in friends' rooms, I returned coke bottles for the 5¢ deposits to buy food with, and I would walk the 7 miles across town every Sunday night to get one good meal a week at the Hare Krishna temple. I loved it. And much of what I stumbled into by following my curiosity and intuition turned out to be priceless later on. Let me give you one example:
Reed College at that time offered perhaps the best calligraphy instruction in the country. Throughout the campus every poster, every label on every drawer, was beautifully hand calligraphed. Because I had dropped out and didn't have to take the normal classes, I decided to take a calligraphy class to learn how to do this. I learned about serif and san serif typefaces, about varying the amount of space between different letter combinations, about what makes great typography great. It was beautiful, historical, artistically subtle in a way that science can't capture, and I found it fascinating.

None of this had even a hope of any practical application in my life. But ten years later, when we were designing the first Macintosh computer, it all came back to me. And we designed it all into the Mac. It was the first computer with beautiful typography. If I had never dropped in on that single course in college, the Mac would have never had multiple typefaces or proportionally spaced fonts. And since Windows just copied the Mac, its likely that no personal computer would have them. If I had never dropped out, I would have never dropped in on this calligraphy class, and personal computers might not have the wonderful typography that they do. Of course it was impossible to connect the dots looking forward when I was in college. But it was very, very clear looking backwards ten years later.
Again, you can't connect the dots looking forward; you can only connect them looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future. You have to trust in something — your gut, destiny, life, karma, whatever. This approach has never let me down, and it has made all the difference in my life.
My second story is about love and loss.

I was lucky — I found what I loved to do early in life. Woz and I started Apple in my parents garage when I was 20. We worked hard, and in 10 years Apple had grown from just the two of us in a garage into a $2 billion company with over 4000 employees. We had just released our finest creation — the Macintosh — a year earlier, and I had just turned 30. And then I got fired. How can you get fired from a company you started? Well, as Apple grew we hired someone who I thought was very talented to run the company with me, and for the first year or so things went well. But then our visions of the future began to diverge and eventually we had a falling out. When we did, our Board of Directors sided with him. So at 30 I was out. And very publicly out. What had been the focus of my entire adult life was gone, and it was devastating.
I really didn't know what to do for a few months. I felt that I had let the previous generation of entrepreneurs down - that I had dropped the baton as it was being passed to me. I met with David Packard and Bob Noyce and tried to apologize for screwing up so badly. I was a very public failure, and I even thought about running away from the valley. But something slowly began to dawn on me — I still loved what I did. The turn of events at Apple had not changed that one bit. I had been rejected, but I was still in love. And so I decided to start over.
I didn't see it then, but it turned out that getting fired from Apple was the best thing that could have ever happened to me. The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life.

During the next five years, I started a company named NeXT, another company named Pixar, and fell in love with an amazing woman who would become my wife. Pixar went on to create the worlds first computer animated feature film, Toy Story, and is now the most successful animation studio in the world. In a remarkable turn of events, Apple bought NeXT, I retuned to Apple, and the technology we developed at NeXT is at the heart of Apple's current renaissance. And Laurene and I have a wonderful family together.
I'm pretty sure none of this would have happened if I hadn't been fired from Apple. It was awful tasting medicine, but I guess the patient needed it. Sometimes life hits you in the head with a brick. Don't lose faith. I'm convinced that the only thing that kept me going was that I loved what I did. You've got to find what you love. And that is as true for your work as it is for your lovers. Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and the only way to be truly satisfied is to do what you believe is great work. And the only way to do great work is to love what you do. If you haven't found it yet, keep looking. Don't settle. As with all matters of the heart, you'll know when you find it. And, like any great relationship, it just gets better and better as the years roll on. So keep looking until you find it. Don't settle.
My third story is about death.

When I was 17, I read a quote that went something like: "If you live each day as if it was your last, someday you'll most certainly be right." It made an impression on me, and since then, for the past 33 years, I have looked in the mirror every morning and asked myself: "If today were the last day of my life, would I want to do what I am about to do today?" And whenever the answer has been "No" for too many days in a row, I know I need to change something.
Remembering that I'll be dead soon is the most important tool I've ever encountered to help me make the big choices in life. Because almost everything — all external expectations, all pride, all fear of embarrassment or failure - these things just fall away in the face of death, leaving only what is truly important. Remembering that you are going to die is the best way I know to avoid the trap of thinking you have something to lose. You are already naked. There is no reason not to follow your heart.

About a year ago I was diagnosed with cancer. I had a scan at 7:30 in the morning, and it clearly showed a tumor on my pancreas. I didn't even know what a pancreas was. The doctors told me this was almost certainly a type of cancer that is incurable, and that I should expect to live no longer than three to six months. My doctor advised me to go home and get my affairs in order, which is doctor's code for prepare to die. It means to try to tell your kids everything you thought you'd have the next 10 years to tell them in just a few months. It means to make sure everything is buttoned up so that it will be as easy as possible for your family. It means to say your goodbyes.

I lived with that diagnosis all day. Later that evening I had a biopsy, where they stuck an endoscope down my throat, through my stomach and into my intestines, put a needle into my pancreas and got a few cells from the tumor. I was sedated, but my wife, who was there, told me that when they viewed the cells under a microscope the doctors started crying because it turned out to be a very rare form of pancreatic cancer that is curable with surgery. I had the surgery and I'm fine now.

This was the closest I've been to facing death, and I hope its the closest I get for a few more decades. Having lived through it, I can now say this to you with a bit more certainty than when death was a useful but purely intellectual concept:
No one wants to die. Even people who want to go to heaven don't want to die to get there. And yet death is the destination we all share. No one has ever escaped it. And that is as it should be, because Death is very likely the single best invention of Life. It is Life's change agent. It clears out the old to make way for the new. Right now the new is you, but someday not too long from now, you will gradually become the old and be cleared away. Sorry to be so dramatic, but it is quite true.

Your time is limited, so don't waste it living someone else's life. Don't be trapped by dogma — which is living with the results of other people's thinking. Don't let the noise of others' opinions drown out your own inner voice. And most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary.

When I was young, there was an amazing publication called The Whole Earth Catalog, which was one of the bibles of my generation. It was created by a fellow named Stewart Brand not far from here in Menlo Park, and he brought it to life with his poetic touch. This was in the late 1960's, before personal computers and desktop publishing, so it was all made with typewriters, scissors, and polaroid cameras. It was sort of like Google in paperback form, 35 years before Google came along: it was idealistic, and overflowing with neat tools and great notions.
Stewart and his team put out several issues of The Whole Earth Catalog, and then when it had run its course, they put out a final issue. It was the mid-1970s, and I was your age. On the back cover of their final issue was a photograph of an early morning country road, the kind you might find yourself hitchhiking on if you were so adventurous. Beneath it were the words: "Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish." It was their farewell message as they signed off. Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish. And I have always wished that for myself. And now, as you graduate to begin anew, I wish that for you.

Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.
Thank you all very much.

Here is the link, if you wanna hear the actual speech.

Friday, November 04, 2005

Amazing Parsees

I have always been fascinated by Parsi people, their loving demeanor, their lore, of how their ancestors landed on the coast of Gujrat and eventually got asylum here. This was when the arabs invaded Persia. Today people in Iran are considered 'arab' because of their religeon, but actually people of India and Iran, both are of the aryan race, which originated in southwestern steppes of present-day Russia, what was formerly a part of Persia (Iran). Infact people of Iran and northen India are the closest aryan decendants anywhere in the world. Also the pharsi language and other Indian languages are interrealted, as they come from the same family of languages. So when the irani people came to India, it was a sort of a homecoming for them.

Come to think of it Parsee people represent less than 1 % of India's population, yet their acheivments have been phenomenal. The leading corporates in India the Tata's are Parsee, their philantropic history is inspiring. Also Godrej the FMCG company, and Bombay Deing of the Wadias are Parsee owned company. Post Independence most of the cricketers in the 50s and 60s were parsees like Nari Contractor, Poli Umrigar, Farookh Engineer. The Parsis were infact the first Indians to play cricket, and to play it well. They promoted the first cricket clubs in India, and in 1886 and 1888 organised the first-ever cricket tours by Indians overseas. In the next decade, they comprehensively defeated several teams of visiting English cricketers!

Also leading Indian constitution expert Palkiwala and former attorney general of India Soli Sorabjee are parsees. Dadabhai Nawrojee known as the grand old man of India, Madam Cama, Phirojshah Mehta were prominent during the freedom strugle. Rajiv Gandhi, India's youngest prime minister,was half Parsi, also India's first and only field marshall Sam Manekshaw is a Parsi, and so is Zubin Mehta.

Zoroastrians call their God Ahura Mazda. Ahura means "Lord" and Mazda means "Wisdom". Zoroastrians believe that Ahura Mazda is their Friend. And their purpose in this world is to help God make the world a better place to live. Zoroastrianism is based on Good Thoughts, Good Deeds, and Good Words. However today their numbers are dwindling since offsprings of intercaste marraiges are not accepted as parsees, since orthodox priest want to preserve their race.

One Intresting fact about them, Fire temples where they pray, has a flame which consists of fire from 18 different sourse, one of them is a fire started on the earth due a lightning that has been witnessed by at least two parsees!!!

I would end the blog by quoting the bava from the movie munnabhai MBBS, ' carrom ramvanu, mango juice pivanu, majja ni life !!!'.